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International journal of molecular sciences

Protective effects of a new phloretin derivative against UVB-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers.


PMID 25334063

Abstract

The phenolic compound phloretin is a prominent member of the chemical class of dihydrochalcones. Phloretin is specifically found in apple and apple juice and known for its biological properties. We were particularly interested in its potential dermo-cosmetic applications. However, practical limitations of phloretin do exist due to its poor water-solubility. Phloretin was sulfonated with sulfuric acid (98%, wt) and mixed with saturated salt water to produce phloretin 3',3-disulfonate in order to increase its water-solubility. Here we reported the photoprotective effect of phloretin 3',3-disulfonate (PS), a new semi-synthetic derivative of phloretin. Results showed that PS attenuated cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB). The photoprotective effect of PS is tightly correlated to the enhancement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression. Furthemore, PS had inhibitory effects on UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of PS on human skin. Overall, the results demonstrated significant benefits of PS on the protection of keratinocytes against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

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