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Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Characterization of cytochalasins from the endophytic Xylaria sp. and their biological functions.


PMID 25350301

Abstract

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fermentation extract of Xylaria sp. XC-16, an endophyte from Toona sinensis led to the isolation of two new cytochalasans cytochalasin Z27, 1, and cytochalasin Z28, 2, along with three known compounds seco-cytochalasin E, 3, and cytochalasin Z18, 4, and cytochalasin E, 5. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic and electronic circular dichroism methods. Compound 5 was shown to be potently cytotoxic against brine shrimp (LC50 = 2.79 μM), comparable to that of the positive agent toosendanin (LC50 = 4.03 μM), and also exhibited potential phytotoxic effects on Lactuca sativa and Raphanus sativus L. seedlings, which are higher than that of the positive control glyphosate. Additionally, the fungicidal effect of 2 against the phytopathogen Gibberella saubinetti was better than that of hymexazol. This is the first report of the three types of cytochalasins present in genus Xylaria. A structure-phytotoxicity activity relationship is also discussed.

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