Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

Enhanced efficacy of cidofovir combined with vaccinia immune globulin in treating progressive cutaneous vaccinia virus infections in immunosuppressed hairless mice.

PMID 25385098


The treatment of progressive vaccinia in individuals has involved antiviral drugs, such as cidofovir (CDV), brincidofovir, and/or tecovirimat, combined with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG is costly, and its supply is limited, so sparing the use of VIG during treatment is an important objective. VIG sparing was modeled in immunosuppressed mice by maximizing the treatment benefits of CDV combined with VIG to determine the effective treatments that delayed the time to death, reduced cutaneous lesion severity, and/or decreased tissue viral titers. SKH-1 hairless mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and hairless SCID mice (SHO strain) were infected cutaneously with vaccinia virus. Monotherapy, dual combinations (CDV plus VIG), or triple therapy (topical CDV, parenteral CDV, and VIG) were initiated 2 days postinfection and were given every 3 to 4 days through day 11. The efficacy assessment included survival rate, cutaneous lesion severity, and viral titers. Delays in the time to death and the reduction in lesion severity occurred in the following order of efficacy: triple therapy had greater efficacy than double combinations (CDV plus VIG or topical plus parenteral CDV), which had greater efficacy than VIG alone. Parenteral administration of CDV or VIG was necessary to suppress virus titers in internal organs (liver, lung, and spleen). The skin viral titers were significantly reduced by triple therapy only. The greatest efficacy was achieved by triple therapy. In humans, this regimen should translate to a faster cure rate, thus sparing the amount of VIG used for treatment.

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Cyclophosphamide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C7H15Cl2N2O2P · H2O