Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

PARP-1 mediates LPS-induced HMGB1 release by macrophages through regulation of HMGB1 acetylation.

PMID 25392528


The high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is increasingly recognized as an important inflammatory mediator. In some cases, the release of HMGB1 is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we report that PARP-1 activation contributes to LPS-induced PARylation of HMGB1, but the PARylation of HMGB1 is insufficient to direct its migration from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; PARP-1 regulates the translocation of HMGB1 to the cytoplasm through upregulating the acetylation of HMGB1. In mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 suppressed LPS-induced translocation and release of HMGB1. Increased PARylation was accompanied with the nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation and release of HMGB1 upon LPS exposure, but PARylated HMGB1 was located at the nucleus, unlike acetylated HMGB1 localized at the cytoplasm in an import assay. PARP inhibitor and PARP-1 depletion decreased the activity ratio of histone acetyltransferases to histone deacetylases that elevated after LPS stimulation and impaired LPS-induced acetylation of HMGB1. In addition, PARylation of HMGB1 facilitates its acetylation in an in vitro enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species scavenger (N-acetyl-l-cysteine) and the ERK inhibitor (FR180204) impaired LPS-induced PARP activation and HMGB1 release. Our findings suggest that PARP-1 regulates LPS-induced acetylation of HMGB1 in two ways: PARylating HMGB1 to facilitate the latter acetylation and increasing the activity ratio of histone acetyltransferases to histone deacetylases. These studies revealed a new mechanism of PARP-1 in regulating the inflammatory response to endotoxin.

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