Hormones (Athens, Greece)

Short-chain fatty acids increase expression and secretion of stromal cell-derived factor-1 in mouse and human pre-adipocytes.

PMID 25402374


Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is expressed in pre-adipocytes but its role is unknown. We investigated butyrate (a histone deacetylase inhibitor--HDACi) and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the regulation of SDF-1. We further investigated whether effects of SCFA were signalled through G protein-coupled receptors FFA2 and FFA3. SDF-1 mRNA expression and protein secretion were studied in 3T3-L1 cells and human pre-adipocytes. SDF-1 was abundant, with mRNA and protein levels increased by butyrate. This was replicated with acetate and propionate, but not with trichostatin or valproate. Trichostatin inhibited SDF-1 secretion. Pertussis toxin blocked stimulation by butyrate. The order of potency of SCFA in stimulating SDF-1 (C3 > C4 > C2) is consistent with action through FFA3. Silencing the FFA3 gene abolished butyrate-stimulated SDF-1 expression and secretion. FFA3 was expressed in both pre-adipocytes and adipocytes, while FFA2 was expressed in adipocytes only. SDF-1 expression was low in murine macrophage J774.2 cells, while the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 was absent from 3T3-L1 cells but abundant in J774.2 macrophages. In human pre-adipocytes, FFA3 was also expressed and SCFA increased SDF-1 secretion. SDF-1 and CXCR4 may mediate the interaction between adipose stromal cells and macrophages. Effects of SCFA are mediated through FFA3, but not histone deacetylase inhibition.