The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

G118R and F121Y mutations identified in patients failing raltegravir treatment confer dolutegravir resistance.

PMID 25414202


Strand transfer inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir) are now commonly used to inhibit HIV-1 integration. To date, three main pathways conferring raltegravir/elvitegravir resistance, involving residues Y143, Q148 and N155, have been described. However, no pathway has been clearly described for dolutegravir resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the susceptibility of two mutations, F121Y and G118R, originally described in patients failing raltegravir-containing regimens, to dolutegravir and raltegravir, and then to compare the resistance of these mutations with that of other well-known mutations involved in raltegravir resistance. Both the F121Y and G118R mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis into the pNL4.3 backbone and studied in cell-based and in vitro assays. The effects of the mutations were characterized at the different steps of infection by quantitative PCR. Results obtained with in vitro and ex vivo assays consistently showed that both mutations impaired the catalytic properties of integrase, especially at the integration step. Moreover, both mutations conferred an intermediate level of resistance to dolutegravir. Interestingly, the F121Y mutation, but not the G118R mutation, displayed differential resistance to raltegravir and dolutegravir. Indeed, the F121Y mutation was more resistant to raltegravir than to dolutegravir. Mutations at G118 and F121, which have been described in patients failing raltegravir-containing regimens, must be included in drug-resistance-testing algorithms.