LDL cholesterol as a novel risk factor for contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

PMID 25463073


Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and increased vasoconstriction, which are involved in the development of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). However, whether LDL-C is an independent risk factor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We prospectively enrolled 3236 consecutive patients undergoing PCI between January 2010 and September 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether LDL-C is an independent risk factor of CI-AKI. CI-AKI was defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or ≥ 25% over the baseline value within 48-72 h after contrast exposure. CI-AKI was observed in 338 patients (10.4%). Patients with CI-AKI had a significantly higher rate of in hospital mortality (4.4% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001), and significantly higher rates of other in hospital complications compared with those without CI-AKI. The LDL-C quartiles were as follows: Q1 (<2.04 mmol/L), Q2 (2.04-2.61 mmol/L), Q3 (2.61-3.21 mmol/L) and Q4 (>3.21 mmol/L). Patients with high baseline LDL-C levels were more likely to develop CI-AKI and composite end points including all-cause mortality, renal replacement therapy, non-fatal myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, target vessel revascularization or cerebrovascular accident during the observation period of hospitalization (8.9%, 9.9%, 10.5%, 12.6%, p = 0.001, and 5.0%, 5.2%, 6.1%, 8.1%, respectively; p = 0.007). Univariate logistic analysis showed that LDL-C levels (increment 1 mmol/L) were significantly associated with CI-AKI (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). Furthermore, LDL-C remained a significant risk factor of CI-AKI (odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI, 1.04-1.45, p = 0.014), even after adjusting for potential confounding risk factors. Measurement of plasma LDL-C concentrations in patients undergoing PCI may be helpful to identify those who are at risk of CI-AKI and poor in hospital outcomes.