Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

Lard-based high-fat diet increases secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression and attenuates the inflammatory response of acute lung injury in endotoxemic rats.

PMID 25466948


Acute lung injury (ALI) is less severe in obese than in nonobese patients, but the mechanism is unclear. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is the key anti-inflammatory protein in various lung diseases. We have previously reported changes of the surgical stress in obese rats using lard-based high-fat diet (HFD). The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of lard-based HFD on the pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI, and the role of SLPI expression. Male Wistar rats were fed lard-based HFD (60 kcal% fat) or control diet (CD) for either 4 or 12 weeks and were killed after intraperitoneal LPS injection. Analyses included messenger RNA expression of TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-10 and SLPI in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and histology of the lungs. Rats fed HFD for 12 weeks showed suppression of the lung injury and oxidative stress after LPS injection, as indicated by reduction of pulmonary TNF-α, MIP-2 and iNOS mRNA expression and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine immunostaining. The increased pulmonary SLPI caused by lard was associated with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which eventually resulted in the prevention of ALI. Those effects of lard on LPS-induced ALI were greater after 12 weeks than after 4 weeks feeding, as indicated by the reduction of TNF-α, MIP-2 and iNOS levels. Feeding lard-based HFD for 12 weeks attenuated LPS-induced ALI with increased pulmonary SLPI expression in rats.