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Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)

Molecular spectrum of c-KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations in gastro intestinal stromal tumor: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel mutations in Indian patients.


PMID 25481675

Abstract

KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations are the major genetic alterations seen in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and are being used clinically for predicting response to imatinib therapy. In the current study, we set out to explore the frequency and distribution pattern of c-KIT (exons 9, 11 and 13) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) by direct sequencing in a series of 70 Indian GIST cases. Overall, 27 (38.5 %) and 4 (5.7 %) of the cases had c-KIT and PDGFRA mutations, respectively. Majority of KIT mutations involved exon 11 (85.7 %), followed by exon 9 (14.3 %), while none showed exon 13 mutation. Most exon 9 mutations showed Ala503-Tyr504 duplication, while one had novel point mutation at codon 476 (S476G). In contrast to exon 9 mutations, most exon 11 mutations were in-frame deletions (79 %, 19/24), predominantly at codons 550-560, while remaining exon 11 mutant cases were point mutations at codons 559, 560, 568, 573 and 575. Interestingly, P573T, Q556_V560delinsH, Q575H and Q575_P577 were novel variations observed in exon 11. The PDGFRA mutations were seen mostly in exon 18, which showed point mutation at codon 842 (D842V), while exon 12 showed a novel indel variation (V561_H570delinsT). No significant correlation between c-KIT/PDGFRA mutations and clinicopathological data was observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the frequency and distribution pattern of c-KIT/PDGFRA mutation in Indian cohort. The current study identified novel variations that added new insights into the genetic heterogeneity of GIST patients. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the presence of PDGFRA mutation from Indian subcontinent.