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Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

Analysis of gadolinium-based contrast agents in tap water with a new hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-cHILIC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.


PMID 25486924

Abstract

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were optimised for the direct determination of gadolinium-based contrast agents in tap water. In comparison to our previous work, a new developed zwitterionic HILIC column (ZIC-cHILIC) was used for speciation of Gd-containing contrast agents. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the five contrast agents Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DPTA-BMA, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA are in the range of 5-12 ng Gd per litre. Additionally, a new internal standard, Pr-DOTA, was investigated to correct intensity drifts, minor and major changes in the sample volumes and possible matrix effects. With the speciation method described, tap water samples from the area of Berlin were analysed and for the first time, three Gd species, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BOPTA, were found in tap water samples at concentrations of about 10-20 ng Gd per litre. These are the same Gd species which have been previously detected predominantly in surface waters of the Berlin area.

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