A comparison of methods for the detection of the r'(s) haplotype.

PMID 25496603


The r'(s) haplotype is found in 5% to 15% of individuals of African descent. Persons with this haplotype have a partial C antigen and weakened e and can produce anti-C or other "e-like" alloantibodies. Thus, for these chronically transfused patients, accurate detection of the r'(s) haplotype is important for selection of matched units. African-American donors were genotyped using the human erythrocyte antigen (HEA) microarray. Samples (n = 125) identified as "possible r'(s) " were then tested by IDCORE XT and RHD and RHCE microarrays. DNA sequencing was used to resolve discordant samples. The genotyping results were compared to serologic testing using a monoclonal anti-C reagent (Clone MS24). Of the 125 possible r'(s) samples identified by HEA, only 94 (75%) were confirmed by both RHD and RHCE microarrays. The IDCORE XT accurately detected 93 of 94 (99%) of the confirmed r'(s) and had no false positives. DNA sequencing of the one discordant sample revealed the presence of a compound heterozygote with RHD* DIII.4/RHCE*ceVS.02 as one haplotype and r'(s) Type 2 as the other. The 31 unconfirmed r'(s) samples carried RHCE*ceVS.03 not linked to the hybrid RHD-CE-D. This occurred most often with RHD*DIIIa (55%) or RHD*01 (19%) and rarely with DIII.4, DIII.6, DAU3, and weak D Type 14. Serologic testing with anti-C gave 100% concordance with the r'(s) samples. The predominant type of r'(s) in African-Americans is Type 1, which can be detected either by a reagent anti-C containing Clone MS24 or by IDCORE XT. However, serology cannot differentiate between a normal C allele and the hybrid.