CMV promotes recipient T-cell immunity following reduced-intensity T-cell-depleted HSCT, significantly modulating chimerism status.

PMID 25499763


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical risk varies according to a number of factors, including recipient/donor CMV serostatus. Current dogma suggests risk is greatest in seropositive recipient (R+)/seronegative donor (D-) transplants and is exacerbated by T-cell depletion. We hypothesized that in the setting of reduced-intensity T-cell-depleted conditioning, recipient-derived CMV-specific T cells escaping deletion may contribute significantly to CMV-specific immunity and might therefore also influence chimerism status. We evaluated 105 recipients of alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity HSCT and collated details on CMV infection episodes and T-cell chimerism. We used CMV-specific HLA multimers to enumerate CMV-specific T-cell numbers and select cells to assess chimerism status in a subset of R+/D- and R+/seropositive donor patients. We show that in R+/D- patients, CMV-specific T cells are exclusively of recipient origin, can protect against recurrent CMV infections, and significantly influence the chimerism status toward recipients. The major findings were replicated in a separate validation cohort. T-cell depletion in the R+/D- setting may actually, therefore, foster more rapid reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity by reducing graft-vs-host directed alloreactivity and the associated elimination of the recipient T-cell compartment. Finally, conversion to donor chimerism after donor lymphocytes is associated with clinically occult transition to donor-derived immunity.