Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Real-time, near-infrared fluorescence imaging with an optimized dye/light source/camera combination for surgical guidance of prostate cancer.

PMID 25501577


The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a surface glycoprotein overexpressed on malignant prostate cells, as well as in the neovasculature of many tumors. Recent efforts to target PSMA for imaging prostate cancer rely on suitably functionalized low-molecular-weight agents. YC-27 is a low-molecular-weight, urea-based agent that enables near-infrared (NIR) imaging of PSMA in vivo. We have developed and validated a laparoscopic imaging system (including an optimized light source, LumiNIR) that is capable of imaging small tumor burdens with minimal background fluorescence in real-time laparoscopic extirpative surgery of small prostate tumor xenografts in murine and porcine models. In a mouse model, we demonstrate the feasibility of using real-time NIR laparoscopic imaging to detect and surgically remove PSMA-positive xenografts. We then validate the use of our laparoscopic real-time NIR imaging system in a large animal model. Our novel light source, which is optimized for YC-27, is capable of detecting as little as 12.4 pg/mL of the compound (2.48-pg YC-27 in 200-μL agarose). Finally, in a mouse xenograft model, we demonstrate that the use of real-time NIR imaging can reduce positive surgical margins (PSM). These data indicate that a NIR-emitting fluorophore targeted to PSMA may allow improved surgical treatment of human prostate cancer, reduce the rate of PSMs, and alleviate the need for adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively.

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