Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators

Experimental ileitis alters prostaglandin biosynthesis in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels.

PMID 25526689


Prostaglandins are important mediators responsible for many changes that occur during the inflammatory response. Specifically, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), prostaglandins are key players in maintenance of blood flow and mucosal defense. In blood vessels, prostaglandins modulate and inhibit transmigration. In lymphatic vessels, on the other hand, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) have been shown to potently inhibit lymphatic contractility. Inhibition of lymphatic contractility could impair proper tissue fluid drainage during inflammation, consequently leading to the submucosal oedema observed in IBD. Alterations in production of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation could have severe implications on lymphatic and vascular functions within the small intestine. Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ileitis guinea pig and rat models, we assessed by quantitative PCR changes in mRNA transcript of enzymes and receptors involved in the production and actions of prostaglandins in mesenteric lymphatic and blood vessels as well as in the affected ileum. Furthermore, we also assessed lymphatic tissue levels of PGE2 and PGI2 during inflammation. We observed significant changes in lymphatic mRNA expression of COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP4 and IP and increases in PGE2 and PGI2 in tissues of TNBS-treated animals. Changes in mRNA in blood vessels from TNBS-treated animals included differences in COX-1, COX-2, MPGES-1, PGIS, EP1, EP2 and IP expression. Prostaglandin metabolites are differentially regulated in both lymphatic and blood vessels during intestinal inflammation.