Investigational new drugs

Chemotherapy with cytochalasin congeners in vitro and in vivo against murine models.

PMID 25563824


Background Despite inherent differences between the cytoskeletal networks of malignant and normal cells, and the clinical antineoplastic activity of microtubule-directed agents, there has yet to be a microfilament-directed agent approved for clinical use. One of the most studied microfilament-directed agents has been cytochalasin B, a mycogenic toxin known to disrupt the formation of actin polymers. Therefore, this study sought to expand on our previous work with the microfilament-directed agent, along with other less studied cytochalasin congeners. Materials and Methods We determined whether cytochalasin B exerted significant cytotoxic effects in vitro on adherent M109 lung carcinoma and B16BL6 and B16F10 murine melanomas, or on suspension P388/ADR murine leukemia cells. We also examined whether cytochalasin B, its reduced congener 21, 22-dihydrocytochalasin B (DiHCB), or cytochalasin D could synergize with doxorubicin (ADR) against ADR-resistant P388/ADR leukemia cells, and produce significant cytotoxicity in vitro. For in vivo characterization, cytochalasins B and D were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to Balb/c mice challenged with drug sensitive P388-S or multidrug resistant P388/ADR leukemias. Results Cytochalasin B demonstrated higher cytotoxicity against adherent lung carcinoma and melanoma cells than against suspension P388/ADR leukemia cells, as assessed by comparative effects on cell growth, and IC₅₀ and IC₈₀ values. Isobolographic analysis indicated that both cytochalasin B and DiHCB demonstrate considerable drug synergy with ADR against ADR-resistant P388/ADR leukemia, while cytochalasin D exhibits only additivity with ADR against the same cell line. In vivo, cytochalasins B and D substantially increased the life expectancy of mice challenged with P388/S and P388/ADR leukemias, and in some cases, produced long-term survival. Conclusion Taken together, it appears that cytochalasins have unique antineoplastic activity that could potentiate a novel class of chemotherapeutic agents.