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Atherosclerosis

Lipoprotein concentration, particle number, size and cholesterol efflux capacity are associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress and function in an HIV positive cohort.


PMID 25574857

Abstract

Association of lipoprotein particle size/number and HDL function with mitochondrial oxidative stress and function may underlie the excess cardiovascular (CVD) risk in HIV. Among HIV infected individuals on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy, we related standard and novel lipid measures [plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, lipoprotein particle (-P) subclass size and number and HDL function (via cholesterol-efflux capacity)] with oxidative stress [peripheral blood mononuclear cell's mitochondrial-specific 8-oxo-deoxyguanine (8-oxo-dG)] and function markers [oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) enzyme activities]. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression analyses were employed adjusting for age, gender, CD4 nadir, viral load, smoking, diabetes, HOMA-IR, hypertension and lipid medications. Among 150 HIV-infected persons (mean age 52 years, 12% women, median CD4 count 524 cell/mm3), low HDL-C and high total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were related to PBMC 8-oxo-deoxyguanine (p = 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). Large HDL-P and HDL-P size were inversely related to PBMC 8-oxo-deoxyguanine (p = 0.04). Small LDL-P (p = 0.01) and total LDL-P (p = 0.01) were related to decreased OXPHOS Complex I activity. LDL-P was related to decreased OXPHOS Complex IV activity (p = 0.02). Cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with increased OXPHOS Complex IV activity. HDL concentration and particle size and number are related to decreased PBMC mitochondrial oxidative stress whereas HDL function is positively related to mitochondrial oxidative function. The association we find between atherogenic lipoprotein profile and increased oxidative stress and function suggests these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease in HIV disease.