Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 greatly contributes to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin in human liver.

PMID 25597851


The major metabolic pathway of vildagliptin in mice, rats, dogs, and humans is hydrolysis at the cyano group to produce a carboxylic acid metabolite M20.7 (LAY151), whereas the major metabolic enzyme of vildagliptin has not been identified. In the present study, we determined the contribution rate of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin in the liver. We performed hydrolysis assay of the cyano group of vildagliptin using mouse, rat, and human liver samples. Additionally, DPP-4 activities in each liver sample were assessed by DPP-4 activity assay using the synthetic substrate H-glycyl-prolyl-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (Gly-Pro-AMC). M20.7 formation rates in liver microsomes were higher than those in liver cytosol. M20.7 formation rate was significantly positively correlated with the DPP-4 activity using Gly-Pro-AMC in liver samples (r = 0.917, P < 0.01). The formation of M20.7 in mouse, rat, and human liver S9 fraction was inhibited by sitagliptin, a selective DPP-4 inhibitor. These findings indicate that DPP-4 is greatly involved in vildagliptin hydrolysis in the liver. Additionally, we established stable single expression systems of human DPP-4 and its R623Q mutant, which is the nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism of human DPP-4, in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells to investigate the effect of R623Q mutant on vildagliptin-hydrolyzing activity. M20.7 formation rate in HEK293 cells expressing human DPP-4 was significantly higher than that in control HEK293 cells. Interestingly, R623Q mutation resulted in a decrease of the vildagliptin-hydrolyzing activity. Our findings might be useful for the prediction of interindividual variability in vildagliptin pharmacokinetics.

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Bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, 99%