European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

Enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of nifedipine by spontaneous emulsifying powders: effect of solid carriers and dietary state.

PMID 25615879


The objective of this study was to prepare spontaneous emulsifying powder (SEP) for improving dissolution and enhancing oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, nifedipine (NDP). In order to investigate the effects of solid carrier properties, such as surface area and pore size, and a concurrent food intake on absorption of NDP in rats, different SEP formulations were prepared by adsorbing liquid spontaneous emulsifying formulation (SEF), composing of polyoxyl 35 castor oil, caprylic/capric glyceride and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether at a ratio of 1:1:8, onto various solid carriers (i.e., silica (FS), porous calcium silicate (PCS) and porous silicon dioxide). The solid characterization by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed the absence of crystalline NDP in the formulations. SEP also demonstrated excellent spontaneous emulsification properties similar to SEF. The droplet size of emulsions formed after dilution was less than 200 nm. The solid carriers (particularly PCS) had significant and positive effect in drug dissolution; the mean dissolution time of SEP containing PCS was considerably improved. SEP also provided a good stability after storage in accelerated and long-term conditions for 6 months. The bioavailability study resulted in enhanced values of C(max) and AUC for SEP formulations, when tested in both fasted and fed rats. Furthermore, comparing the AUC in fasted and fed rats, NDP powder exhibited a significant food effect. The difference in bioavailability of NDP in fed compared to fasted state can be avoided by using SEP.