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The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

Efficacy and safety of arachidonic acid for treatment of school-age children in Schistosoma mansoni high-endemicity regions.


PMID 25624403

Abstract

Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 fatty acid, is a potent schistosomicide that displayed significant and safe therapeutic effects in Schistosoma mansoni-infected schoolchildren in S. mansoni low-prevalence regions. We here report on ARA efficacy and safety in treatment of schoolchildren in S. mansoni high-endemicity areas of Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02144389). In total, 268 schoolchildren with light, moderate, or heavy S. mansoni infection were assigned to three study arms of 87, 91, and 90 children and received a single dose of 40 mg/kg praziquantel (PZQ), ARA (10 mg/kg per day for 15 days), or PZQ combined with ARA, respectively. The children were examined before and after treatment for stool parasite egg counts and blood biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters. ARA, like PZQ, induced moderate cure rates (50% and 60%, respectively) in schoolchildren with light infection and modest cure rates (21% and 20%, respectively) in schoolchildren with high infection. PZQ and ARA combined elicited 83% and 78% cure rates in children with light and heavy infection, respectively. Biochemical and immunological profiles were either unchanged or ameliorated after ARA therapy. Combination of PZQ and ARA might be useful for treatment of children with schistosomiasis in high-endemicity regions.