The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

Pharmacokinetic profile of raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in plasma and mucosal secretions in rhesus macaques.

PMID 25630643


Pharmacokinetic studies in animal models are important for assessing the prophylactic potential of antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention. This study sought to identify clinically relevant doses of the marketed integrase inhibitors raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in macaques and investigate drug penetration and antiviral activity in mucosal secretions. Macaques received one oral dose of raltegravir, elvitegravir or dolutegravir alone or in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate followed by drug level measurements in blood and rectal and vaginal secretions. Antiviral activity was investigated in TZM-bl cells exposed to SHIV162p3 in the presence of rectal secretions collected from treated animals. Plasma drug concentrations with 50 mg/kg raltegravir or elvitegravir were within the range seen in humans receiving 400-800 mg of raltegravir or 800 mg of unboosted elvitegravir but lower than with 150 mg of elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat. AUC0-24 values for dolutegravir increased proportionally with the dose, with a calculated human-equivalent dose of 20 mg/kg. Elvitegravir showed the highest penetration in rectal and vaginal fluids despite the absence of pharmacological boosting, followed by raltegravir and dolutegravir. Rectal secretions collected at 24 h from treated macaques blocked infection of TZM-bl cells by 50% at dilutions of 1/1000 (raltegravir), 1/800 (dolutegravir) and >1/30 000 (elvitegravir). We defined macaque doses of HIV integrase inhibitors that recapitulate human clinical doses, which will facilitate efficacy and dose escalation studies in macaques. High and sustained drug concentrations and activity in mucosal secretions suggest that integrase inhibitors are promising candidates for HIV prevention.