Clinical and experimental immunology

Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 induced interleukin-19 dampens immune reactions and associates inversely with spondyloarthritis disease activity.

PMID 25639337


Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of immune mediated inflammatory diseases affecting joints, gut, skin and entheses. The inflammatory process involves activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 and production of cytokines and chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1). This proinflammatory chemokine recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and is central in the development of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-19 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. IL-19-deficient mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis and develop more severe inflammation in response to injury. In this work, we studied inducers of IL-19 production and effect of IL-19 on the production of CCL2/MCP-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls (HCs) and in PBMCs and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) from SpA patients. Further, we measured IL-19 in plasma from HCs and in plasma and synovial fluid from SpA patients. Constitutive IL-19 expression was present in both PBMCs and SFMCs and the secretion of IL-19 was increased by TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands. Neutralizing IL-19 in HC PBMCs and SpA SFMCs resulted in increased production of CCL-2/MCP-1. IL-19 concentrations were decreased in synovial fluid compared with plasma and associated inversely with disease activity in SpA. SpA SFMCs produced less IL-19 in response to LPS compared with HC PBMCs. These findings indicate that IL-19 production is diminished in SpA. Taken together, impaired IL-19 control of the innate immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of SpA.