Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

Antioxidant's cytoprotective effects on rotator cuff tenofibroblasts exposed to aminoamide local anesthetics.

PMID 25639557


Local anesthetics (LA) are among the drugs most frequently used for musculoskeletal problems, in procedures ranging from diagnosis to postoperative pain control. The cytotoxicity of LA is an emerging area of concern. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyanidin, an antioxidant, exerts cytoprotective effects against tenofibroblast death induced by LA. Primary cultured human rotator cuff tenofibroblasts were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these LA: Ropivacaine (0.075%), Bupivacaine (0.05%), and Lidocaine (0.2%). The effects of cyanidin (100 μg/ml) on the cytotoxicity induced by these LA were investigated. Cell viability, ROS production, caspase-3/7 activity, and expressions of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleaved PARP-1 were evaluated. Exposure to LA significantly induced cell death (p < 0.001), ROS production (p ≤ 0.04), the activation of caspase-3/7 (p < 0.001), and the increased expressions of phospho-ERK, phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and cleaved PARP-1. These LA-induced cytotoxic effects were reduced by cyanidin. These data indicate that cyanidin, an antioxidant, has cytoprotective effects against LA-induced cytotoxicity to rotator cuff tenofibroblasts.