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Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Integrated genomic profiling, therapy response, and survival in adult acute myelogenous leukemia.


PMID 25652455

Abstract

Recurrent gene mutations, chromosomal translocations, and acquired genomic copy number aberrations (aCNA) have been variously associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient outcome. However, knowledge of the co-occurrence of such lesions and the relative influence of different types of genomic alterations on clinical outcomes in AML is still evolving. We performed SNP 6.0 array-based genomic profiling of aCNA/copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (cnLOH) along with sequence analysis of 13 commonly mutated genes on purified leukemic blast DNA from 156 prospectively enrolled non-FAB-M3 AML patients across the clinical spectrum of de novo, secondary, and therapy-related AML. TP53 and RUNX1 mutations are strongly associated with the presence of SNP-A-based aCNA/cnLOH, while FLT3 and NPM1 mutations are strongly associated with the absence of aCNA/cnLOH. The presence of mutations in RUNX1, ASXL1, and TP53, elevated SNP-A-based genomic complexity, and specific recurrent aCNAs predicted failure to achieve a complete response to induction chemotherapy. The presence of ≥1 aCNA/cnLOH and higher thresholds predicted for poor long-term survival irrespective of TP53 status, and the presence of ≥1 aCNA/cnLOH added negative prognostic information to knowledge of mutations in TET2, IDH1, NPM1, DNMT3A, and RUNX1. Results of multivariate analyses support a dominant role for TP53 mutations and a role for elevated genomic complexity as predictors of short survival in AML. Integrated genomic profiling of a clinically relevant adult AML cohort identified genomic aberrations most associated with SNP-A-based genomic complexity, resistance to intensive induction therapies, and shortened overall survival. Identifying SNP-A-based lesions adds prognostic value to the status of several recurrently mutated genes.