Molecular bioSystems

Early markers of Fabry disease revealed by proteomics.

PMID 25666440


Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-GalA) that leads to the intra-lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in various organ systems. As a consequence, a multisystems disorder develops, culminating in stroke, progressive renal and cardiac dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) offers a specific treatment for patients affected by FD, though the monitoring of treatment is hindered by a lack of surrogate markers of response. Remarkably, due to the high heterogeneity of the Fabry phenotype, both diagnostic testing and treatment decisions are more challenging in females than in males; thus, reliable biomarkers for Fabry disease are needed, particularly for female patients. Here, we use a proteomic approach for the identification of disease-associated markers that can be used for the early diagnosis of FD as well as for monitoring the effectiveness of ERT. Our data show that the urinary proteome of Fabry naïve patients is different from that of normal subjects. In addition, biological pathways mainly affected by FD are related to immune response, inflammation, and energetic metabolism. In particular, the up-regulation of uromodulin, prostaglandin H2 d-isomerase and prosaposin in the urine of FD patients was demonstrated; these proteins might be involved in kidney damage at the tubular level, inflammation and immune response. Furthermore, comparing the expression of these proteins in Fabry patients before and after ERT treatment, a decrease of their concentration was observed, thus demonstrating the correlation between the identified markers and the effectiveness of the pharmacological treatment.