Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP) as a surface primer for biomimetic remineralization of superficial enamel defects: An in vitro study.

PMID 25676352


This study was carried out to obtain more information about the assembly of hydroxyapatite bundles formed in the presence of Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) and to evaluate its effect on the remineralization of enamel defects through a biomimetic approach. One or 2 mg/mL LRAP solutions containing 2.5 mM of Ca(+2) and 1.5 mM phosphate were prepared (pH = 7.2) and stored at 37 °C for 24 h. The products of the reaction were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Vickers surface microhardness recovery (SMR%) of acid-etched bovine enamel, with or without LRAP surface treatment, were calculated to evaluate the influence of peptide on the lesion remineralization. Distilled water and 1 or 2 mg/mL LRAP solution (pH = 7.2) were applied on the lesions and the specimens were incubated in mineralization solution (2.5mM Ca(+2) , 1.5mM PO4 (-3) , pH = 7.2) for 24 h. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multi-comparison tests were used for statistical analysis. The pattern of enamel surface repair was studied using FE-SEM. AFM showed the formation of highly organized hierarchical structures, composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals, similar to the dental enamel microstructure. ANOVA procedure showed significant effect of peptide treatment on the calculated SMR% (p < 0.001). Tukey's test revealed that peptide treated groups had significantly higher values of SMR%. In conclusion, LRAP is able to regulate the formation of HA and enhances the remineralization of acid-etched enamel as a surface treatment agent.