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Journal of diabetes and its complications

Blood glucose fluctuations in hemodialysis patients with end stage diabetic nephropathy.


PMID 25681043

Abstract

To characterize blood glucose fluctuation during hemodialysis in patients with end stage diabetic nephropathy (ESDN) by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS), and aim to improve blood glucose control in this patient population. Forty-six patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), receiving hemodialysis, were recruited in this study. Thirty-six patients had end stage diabetic nephropathy (ESDN group), the other ten patients had end stage renal disease without diabetes (ESRD group). A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was employed to monitor glycemic fluctuation for 72 hours. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Mean, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and mean amplitude glycemic excursion (MAGE) of blood glucose and the ratio of blood glucose readings that was greater than 13.9 mmol/L of ESDN group, were significantly greater than those of ESRD group (p<0.01 for all) during 72 hours of observation. The mean blood glucose was significantly lower, while SD and MAGE were significantly higher in ESDN group on hemodialysis day than on days off hemodialysis (p<0.05), while these were not been observed in ESRD group. Though mean, SD, and MAGE of blood glucose during hemodialysis were significantly lower than those of peri-hemodialysis in both groups (p<0.01 or p<0.05, respectively), they were significantly higher in ESDN group than that in ESRD group (p<0.05). The mean blood glucose value calculated from HbA1c did not reflect the actual mean blood glucose measured by CGM in both groups, and gave an inaccurate impression of a significantly lower mean glucose. ESDN patients had larger glycemic fluctuations as compared with ESRD patients. Hemodialysis caused reduction in mean, SD, and MAGE, which in turn caused bigger glycemic fluctuations on hemodialysis day. The HbA1c in ESDN patients gave an inaccurate value, which did not truly reflect blood glucose status for a prolonged period.