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Applied and environmental microbiology

Corynebacterium glutamicum methionine sulfoxide reductase A uses both mycoredoxin and thioredoxin for regeneration and oxidative stress resistance.


PMID 25681179

Abstract

Oxidation of methionine leads to the formation of the S and R diastereomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetO), which can be reversed by the actions of two structurally unrelated classes of methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), MsrA and MsrB, respectively. Although MsrAs have long been demonstrated in numerous bacteria, their physiological and biochemical functions remain largely unknown in Actinomycetes. Here, we report that a Corynebacterium glutamicum methionine sulfoxide reductase A (CgMsrA) that belongs to the 3-Cys family of MsrAs plays important roles in oxidative stress resistance. Deletion of the msrA gene in C. glutamicum resulted in decrease of cell viability, increase of ROS production, and increase of protein carbonylation levels under various stress conditions. The physiological roles of CgMsrA in resistance to oxidative stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under various stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive extracytoplasmic-function (ECF) sigma factor SigH. Activity assays performed with various regeneration pathways showed that CgMsrA can reduce MetO via both the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (Trx/TrxR) and mycoredoxin 1/mycothione reductase/mycothiol (Mrx1/Mtr/MSH) pathways. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that Cys56 is the peroxidatic cysteine that is oxidized to sulfenic acid, while Cys204 and Cys213 are the resolving Cys residues that form an intramolecular disulfide bond. Mrx1 reduces the sulfenic acid intermediate via the formation of an S-mycothiolated MsrA intermediate (MsrA-SSM) which is then recycled by mycoredoxin and the second molecule of mycothiol, similarly to the glutathione/glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase (GSH/Grx/GR) system. However, Trx reduces the Cys204-Cys213 disulfide bond in CgMsrA produced during MetO reduction via the formation of a transient intermolecular disulfide bond between Trx and CgMsrA. While both the Trx/TrxR and Mrx1/Mtr/MSH pathways are operative in reducing CgMsrA under stress conditions in vivo, the Trx/TrxR pathway alone is sufficient to reduce CgMsrA under normal conditions. Based on these results, a catalytic model for the reduction of CgMsrA by Mrx1 and Trx is proposed.

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