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Journal of cellular biochemistry

[6]-Gingerol Affects Glucose Metabolism by Dual Regulation via the AMPKα2-Mediated AS160-Rab5 Pathway and AMPK-Mediated Insulin Sensitizing Effects.


PMID 25694332

Abstract

[6]-Gingerol has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidemia; however, its metabolic role is poorly understood. In this study, [6]-gingerol increased adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Stimulation of glucose uptake by [6]-gingerol was dependent on AMPKα2. Moreover, both Inhibition and knockdown of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced glucose uptake. [6]-Gingerol significantly decreased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of PP2A activity with okadaic acid enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2. Moreover, the interaction between AMPKα2 and PP2A was increased by [6]-gingerol, suggesting that PP2A mediates the effect of [6]-gingerol on AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, [6]-gingerol increased the phosphorylation of Akt-substrate 160 (AS160), which is a Rab GTPase-activating protein. Inhibition of AMPKα2 blocked [6]-gingerol-induced AS160 phosphorylation. [6]-gingerol increased the Rab5, and AMPKα2 knockdown blocked [6]-gingerol-induced expression of Rab5, indicating AMPK play as an upstream of Rab5. It also increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA and protein expression and stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, insulin-mediated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were further potentiated by [6]-gingerol treatment. This potentiation was not observed in the presence of AMPK inhibitor compound C. In summary, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol plays an important role in glucose metabolism via the AMPKα2-mediated AS160-Rab5 pathway and through potentiation of insulin-mediated glucose regulation.

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I6634 Insulin from bovine pancreas, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
C254H377N65O75S6