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Plant physiology

Site-specific nitrosoproteomic identification of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis.


PMID 25699590

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates multiple developmental events and stress responses in plants. A major biologically active species of NO is S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is irreversibly degraded by GSNO reductase (GSNOR). The major physiological effect of NO is protein S-nitrosylation, a redox-based posttranslational modification mechanism by covalently linking an NO molecule to a cysteine thiol. However, little is known about the mechanisms of S-nitrosylation-regulated signaling, partly due to limited S-nitrosylated proteins being identified. In this study, we identified 1,195 endogenously S-nitrosylated peptides in 926 proteins from the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by a site-specific nitrosoproteomic approach, which, to date, is the largest data set of S-nitrosylated proteins among all organisms. Consensus sequence analysis of these peptides identified several motifs that contain acidic, but not basic, amino acid residues flanking the S-nitrosylated cysteine residues. These S-nitrosylated proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes and are significantly enriched in chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress responses. Consistently, the gsnor1-3 mutant shows the decreased chlorophyll content and altered photosynthetic properties, suggesting that S-nitrosylation is an important regulatory mechanism in these processes. These results have provided valuable resources and new clues to the studies on S-nitrosylation-regulated signaling in plants.