Fish & shellfish immunology

Dietary supplementation of Avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in Amphiprion sebae against Vibrio alginolyticus.

PMID 25703711


The effect of Avicennia marina aqueous leaf extract on innate immune mechanisms such as total white blood cell counts (WBC), serum lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, alternative complement (ACH50) assay, phagocytic activity assay, disease resistance, gut bacteria, and survival rate of clownfish (Amphiprion sebae) against Vibrio alginolyticus is reported. Healthy fish challenged with V. alginolyticus (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) were fed with diets supplemented (0, 1, 2, and 4%) with A. marina extract. The survival rate was 85% and 80% in infected fish fed with 4% and 8% supplementation diet; with 1% diet it was 70% while in the infected untreated group it was only 10%. The total gut bacteria flora was high in 8% and 4% supplementation diet groups with 2.8 × 10(5) and 4.7 × 10(4) cfu/g while it was 8.9 × 10(3) cfu/g in 1% diet group. The immunological parameters significantly increased on weeks 6 and 8 when infected fish were fed with 1% or 4% supplementation diet. This study reports that in clownfish challenged with V. alginolyticus, dietary administration of the 1% or 4% of A. marina extract improved the immune status and survival rate.