Renal failure

Variability of mycophenolic acid elimination in the renal transplant recipients – population pharmacokinetic approach.

PMID 25707517


The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for clearance of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in adult renal transplant recipients, to quantify the PK parameters and the influence of covariates on the MPA pharmacokinetic parameters. Parameters associated with plasma concentrations of MPA at steady-state were analyzed in 70 renal transplant recipients (mean age 42.97 years; mean total body weight 75.33 kg) using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). Characteristics of patients screened for influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters were gender, age, body weight, time after transplantation, whether the patient was diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, organ source (living or deceased donor), biochemical parameters and co-therapy (tacrolimus, cyclosporine, prednisolone, omeprazole, bisoprolol, carvedilol, nifedipine). A validation set of 25 renal transplant recipients was used to estimate the predictive performance of population pharmacokinetic model. Typical mean value of MPA oral clearance, estimated by base model (without covariates) was 0.741 L h(-1). During population modeling, the full model showed that clearance of the MPA was significantly influenced by age, total daily dose of MPA, creatinine clearance, albumin level, status and gender of a donor, and the nifedipine and tacrolimus co-therapy. In the final model, clearance of MPA was reported to be significantly influenced by age, total daily dose of MPA and thenifedipine co-therapy. The derived model describes adequately MPA clearance in terms of characteristics of our patients, offering basis for individual pharmacotherapy approach.