Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology

Determination of Hepatotoxicity and Its Underlying Metabolic Basis of 1,2-Dichloropropane in Male Syrian Hamsters and B6C3F1 Mice.

PMID 25711234


1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) has recently been reclassified from not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) to carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This was based on the findings of epidemiological studies in Japan that occupational exposure to paint stripers containing 1,2-DCP was associated with increased cholangiocarcinomas. It is known that 1,2-DCP is negative for cholangiocarcinogenicity in rats and mice. However, its toxicity and carcinogenicity has not been examined in hamsters and little is known about the regulation of its metabolism in hamsters. The purpose of this study was to determine the hepatobiliary toxicity of 1,2-DCP in hamsters and to characterize and compare the altered patterns of hepatic xenometabolic enzymes in hamsters and mice. Male Syrian hamsters and male B6C3F1 mice were treated with various doses of 1,2-DCP for 4 h or 3 days or 4 weeks. These experiments demonstrated that a high dose of 1,2-DCP induced centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis in hamsters. CYP2E1 is possibly the key enzyme responsible for bioactivation and the consequent hepatocytotoxicity of 1,2-DCP, and GSH conjugation catalyzed by GST-T1 may exert a cytoprotective role in hamsters and mice. Notably, the expression pattern of GST-T1 in bile duct epithelial cells differed between hamsters and mice: GST-T1 was expressed in bile duct epithelial cells of mice but not hamsters. This indicates that responses to 1,2-DCP in the bile duct of hamsters might differ from that of mice, and suggests that long-term studies are necessary to clarify the chalangiocarcinogenicity of 1,2-DCP in hamsters, though no biliary toxicity was observed in the present short-term experiments.