European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society

ICAM1 depletion reduces spinal metastasis formation in vivo and improves neurological outcome.

PMID 25711910


Clinical treatment of spinal metastasis is gaining in complexity while the underlying biology remains unknown. Insufficient biological understanding is due to a lack of suitable experimental animal models. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) has been implicated in metastasis formation. Its role in spinal metastasis remains unclear. It was the aim to generate a reliable spinal metastasis model in mice and to investigate metastasis formation under ICAM1 depletion. B16 melanoma cells were infected with a lentivirus containing firefly luciferase (B16-luc). Stable cell clones (B16-luc) were injected retrogradely into the distal aortic arch. Spinal metastasis formation was monitored using in vivo bioluminescence imaging/MRI. Neurological deficits were monitored daily. In vivo selected, metastasized tumor cells were isolated (mB16-luc) and reinjected intraarterially. mB16-luc cells were injected intraarterially in ICAM1 KO mice. Metastasis distribution was analyzed using organ-specific fluorescence analysis. Intraarterial injection of B16-luc and metastatic mB16-luc reliably induced spinal metastasis formation with neurological deficits (B16-luc:26.5, mB16-luc:21 days, p<0.05). In vivo selection increased the metastatic aggressiveness and led to a bone specific homing phenotype. Thus, mB16-luc cells demonstrated higher number (B16-luc: 1.2±0.447, mB16-luc:3.2±1.643) and increased total metastasis volume (B16-luc:2.87±2.453 mm3, mB16-luc:11.19±3.898 mm3, p<0.05) in the spine. ICAM1 depletion leads to a significantly reduced number of spinal metastasis (mB16-luc:1.2±0.84) with improved neurological outcome (29 days). General metastatic burden was significantly reduced under ICAM1 depletion (control: 3.47×10(7)±1.66×10(7); ICAM-1-/-: 5.20×10(4)±4.44×10(4), p<0.05 vs. control) Applying a reliable animal model for spinal metastasis, ICAM1 depletion reduces spinal metastasis formation due to an organ-unspecific reduction of metastasis development.