Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine

Differentially expressed gene profiles of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma by integrated microarray analysis.

PMID 25712376


Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common primary liver cancers worldwide. However, the survival and prognosis of ICC are much poorer than those of HCC, indicating the different molecular characteristics and mechanisms between ICC and HCC. To identify differentially expressed (DE) genes between ICC and HCC or combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), we performed integrated analysis of publicly available microarray Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets by MetaOmics. Three GEO datasets comprising 32 ICC biochips, 77 HCC biochips, and 34 CHC biochips were available for the data integration. We identified 7313 DE genes between ICC and HCC, including 3650 upregulated genes and 3663 downregulated genes. The S100 family members on chromosome 1q21 were extensively upregulated in ICC, and S100A11 had the greatest degree of upregulation in ICC. Based on the DE genes, combined gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed the enhanced pathways of local adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and regulation of action cytoskeleton, suggesting the enhanced communication between ICC and the microenvironment. Additionally, development-related genes and development-related pathways, including the Notch, Wnt, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were shown to be active prominently in ICC. Taken together, we identified the characteristically upregulated or downregulated DE genes and pathways in ICC compared with HCC or CHC. These DE genes and pathways supply new transcriptomics evidence for ICC and could help identify new therapeutic targets.