Journal of the American Chemical Society

Planarization, fusion, and strain of carbon-bridged phenylenevinylene oligomers enhance π-electron and charge conjugation: a dissectional vibrational Raman study.

PMID 25730496


We have used Raman spectroscopy to study the molecular and electronic structures of the radical cations and dications of carbon-bridged oligo(para-phenylenevinylene)s (COPVn, n = 1-6) possessing consecutive fused pentagons and hexagons, up to 19, along with COPV derivatives having electron-donating and -withdrawing groups. This study was made possible by the outstanding stability of the charged states of COPVs. We could untangle the effects of π-conjugation in the planar structure on the Raman frequency by distinguishing it from other structural effects, such as strain in the vinylene groups shared by the two pentagons. The analyses showed that the radical cations have benzo-quinoidal structures confined in the center of the molecule, as well as benzo-aromatic rings at the terminal sites. In contrast, dications of COPVn longer than n = 3 exhibit a biradicaloid character because of the recovery of aromaticity in the central rings and quinoidal rings at the terminal positions. These biradicaloids favor a singlet nature in their ground electronic states because of the double spin polarization. The introduction of electron-donating and -withdrawing groups on the termini of a COPV core affords, upon oxidation or reduction, a fully delocalized class III mixed valence system because of the high degree of conjugation of the COPV platform, which favors extensive charge delocalization.