Biochimica et biophysica acta

Conserved C272/278 in b domain regulate the function of PDI-P5 to make lysozymes trypsin-resistant forms via significant intermolecular disulfide cross-linking.

PMID 25731082


Protein disulfide isomerase-P5 (P5) is thought to have important functions as an oxidoreductase, however, molecular functions of P5 have not been fully elucidated. We have reported that P5 has insulin reductase activity and inhibits lysozyme refolding by formation of lysozyme multimers with hypermolecular mass inactivated by intermolecular disulfides (hyLYS) in oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme. To explore the role of each domain of P5, we investigated the effects of domain deletion and Cys-Ala mutants of P5 on insulin reduction and the oxidative refolding of the lysozyme. The mutants of catalytic cysteines, C36/39A, C171/174A, and C36/39/171/174A inhibited the lysozyme refolding almost similarly to P5, and even b domain without catalytic cysteines showed moderate inhibitory effect, suggesting that the b domain played a key role in the inhibition. Western blotting analysis of the refolding products indicated that the catalytic cysteines in both the a and a' domains cross-linked lysozyme comparably to form hyLYS resistant to trypsin, in which b domain was suggested to capture lysozyme for the significant sulfhydryl oxidation. The mutant of the conserved cysteines in b domain, C272/278A, did not form hyLYS, however, showed predominant reductase activity, implying that P5 functioned as a potent sulfhydryl oxidase and a predominant reductase depending on the circumstance around C272/278. These results provide new insight into the molecular basis of P5 function.