The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

Evaluation of rosuvastatin as an organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) probe substrate: in vitro transport and in vivo disposition in cynomolgus monkeys.

PMID 25740896


Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate hepatic drug uptake and serve as the loci of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Consequently, there is a major need to develop animal models and refine in vitro-in vivo extrapolations. Therefore, the in vivo disposition of a model OATP substrate, [(3)H]rosuvastatin (RSV), was studied in the cynomolgus monkey and reported for the first time. After monkeys had received a 3-mg/kg oral dose, mass balance was achieved after bile duct cannulation (mean total recovery of radioactivity of 103.6%). Forty-two percent of the RSV dose was recovered in urine and bile, and the elimination pathways were similar to those reported for human subjects; 61.7%, 39.0%, and 2.9% of the dose was recovered in the feces, bile, and urine, respectively. The high levels of unchanged RSV recovered in urine and bile (26% of the dose) and the relatively low levels of metabolites observed indicated that RSV was eliminated largely by excretion. Also, for the first time, the in vitro inhibitory potential of cyclosporin A (CsA) toward cynomolgus monkey OATPs and sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide was studied in vitro (primary hepatocytes and transporter-transfected cells). It is concluded that one can study the CsA-RSV DDI in the cynomolgus monkey. For example, the in vitro IC50 values were within 2-fold (monkey versus human), and the increase (versus vehicle control) in the RSV AUC0-inf (6.3-fold) and Cmax (10.2-fold) with CsA (100 mg/kg) was similar to that reported for humans. The results further support the use of the cynomolgus monkey as a model to assess interactions involving OATP inhibition.