Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Prospective validation of DACH2 as a novel biomarker for prediction of metastasis and prognosis in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

PMID 25744029


Metastasis is the main cause of death from muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), and the metastatic potential of tumors is often unpredictable. The role of Dachshund homolog 2 gene (DACH2) in tumorigenesis remains unexplored. We aimed to investigate whether DACH2 can be used as a biomarker to predict metastasis and prognosis of muscle-invasive UCB in a sequential training and validation fashion. For the training set (n = 40), compared with UCB patients without lymph node (LN) metastasis, both DACH2 protein and mRNA expression were greatly increased in case-matched patients with LN metastasis. For the independent validation set (n = 243), patients with primary UCB that did not express DACH2 had a longer metastasis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS) than did those with tumors expressing DACH2 (5-year MFS: 88% [95% CI 80-96] versus 19% [95% CI 7-31], p < 0.001; 5-year OS: 93% [95% CI 87-99] versus 37% [95% CI 23-51], p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis of DACH2 status showed hazard ratios of 7.34 (95% CI 3.15-11.87, p < 0.001) for MFS and 3.96 (95% CI 2.04-7.16, p < 0.001) for OS which were much higher than hazard ratios associated with other independent risk factors. Collectively, DACH2 is an independent prognostic marker that can be used at initial diagnosis of UCB to identify patients who have a high potential to develop metastasis.