The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences

Investigation of possible prophylactic, renoprotective, and cardioprotective effects of thromboprophylactic drugs against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

PMID 25744233


The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticoagulant and antiaggregant agents have protective effects against oxidative damage induced by peripheral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Groups were created as follows: control group, I/R group (sham group), I/R plus acetylsalicylic acid (Group I), I/R+clopidogrel (Group II), I/R+rivaroxaban (Group III), I/R+bemiparin sodium (Group IV), and I/R+enoxaparin sodium (Group V). In Groups I, II, III, IV, and V, drugs were administered daily for 1 week before I/R creation. Peripheral I/R was induced in the I/R groups by clamping the right femoral artery. The rats were sacrificed 1 hour after reperfusion. Nitrogen oxide levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and prolidase activity were evaluated in both cardiac and renal tissues. There was no significant difference in nitrogen oxide levels between the groups. However, cardiac and renal MDA were significantly higher and PON1 activity was markedly lower in the I/R groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). Although elevated prolidase activity was detected in both the cardiac and renal tissue of the I/R groups, only the sham group and Group V had significantly higher renal prolidase activity (p<0.05). Group V had significantly higher cardiac MDA, PON1, prolidase levels, and renal prolidase activity compared with the sham group (p<0.05). Significant improvement in renal MDA levels was only observed in Group III, and marked improvement was observed in the cardiac MDA levels of Group II when compared with the sham group (p<0.05). Thromboprophylactic agents appear to provide partial or prominent protection against I/R injury.

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Paraoxon-ethyl, ≥90%, oil
Paraoxon-ethyl, PESTANAL®, analytical standard