Free radical biology & medicine

Pterostilbene and allopurinol reduce fructose-induced podocyte oxidative stress and inflammation via microRNA-377.

PMID 25746774


High dietary fructose is an important causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome-associated glomerular podocyte oxidative stress and injury. Here, we identified microRNA-377 (miR-377) as a biomarker of oxidative stress in renal cortex of fructose-fed rats, which correlated with podocyte injury and albuminuria in metabolic syndrome. Fructose feeding increased miR-377 expression, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and activity, and caused O2(-) and H2O2 overproduction in kidney cortex or glomeruli of rats. This reactive oxygen species induction increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression and activated the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome to produce interleukin-1β in kidney glomeruli of fructose-fed rats. These pathological processes were further evaluated in cultured differentiated podocytes exposed to 5mM fructose, or transfected with miR-377 mimic/inhibitor and TXNIP siRNA, or co-incubated with p38 MAPK inhibitor, demonstrating that miR-377 overexpression activates the O2(-)/p38 MAPK/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway to promote oxidative stress and inflammation in fructose-induced podocyte injury. Antioxidants pterostilbene and allopurinol were found to ameliorate fructose-induced hyperuricemia, podocyte injury, and albuminuria in rats. More importantly, pterostilbene and allopurinol inhibited podocyte miR-377 overexpression to increase SOD1 and SOD2 levels and suppress the O2(-)/p38 MAPK/TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway activation in vivo and in vitro, consistent with the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. These findings suggest that miR-377 plays an important role in glomerular podocyte oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury driven by high fructose. Inhibition of miR-377 by antioxidants may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of metabolic syndrome-associated glomerular podocyte injury.

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Allopurinol, xanthine oxidase inhibitor
Pterostilbene, ≥97% (HPLC), solid