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Biochemical and biophysical research communications

TLR2 deficiency attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy in mice.


PMID 25749338

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. Because the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 induces oxidative stress and inflammation, TLR2 may be directly linked to skeletal muscle atrophy. This study examined the role of TLR2 in skeletal muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Immobilization for 2 weeks increased the expression of cytokine genes and the levels of carbonylated proteins and nitrotyrosine in the skeletal muscle, but these increases were lower in the TLR2 KO mice. Muscle weight loss and a reduction in treadmill running times induced by immobilization were also attenuated in TLR2 KO mice. Furthermore, immobilization increased the protein levels of forkhead box O 1/3, atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger 1 in the WT mice, which was attenuated in TLR2 KO mice. In addition, immobilization-associated increases in ubiquitinated protein levels were lower in the TLR2 KO mice. Immobilization increased the phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K similarly in WT and KO mice. Furthermore, cardiotoxin injection into the skeletal muscle increased the protein levels of atrogin-1, interleukin-6, and nitrotyrosine and increased the levels of ubiquitinated proteins, although these levels were increased to a lesser extent in TLR2 KO mice. These results suggest that TLR2 is involved in skeletal muscle atrophy, and the inhibition of TLR2 offers a potential target for preventing skeletal muscle atrophy.