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Journal of immunology research

The secretion of IL-22 from mucosal NKp44⁺ NK cells is associated with microbial translocation and virus infection in SIV/SHIV-infected Chinese macaques.


PMID 25759828

Abstract

Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of a novel subtype of innate lymphoid cells, the NKp44(+) NK cells, in HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV-) induced MT remains unknown. In this study, 12 simian-human immunodeficiency virus- (SHIV-) infected macaques were chosen and split into two groups based on the MT level. Blood and Peripheral lymphoid tissue were sampled for flow cytometric analysis, viral load detection, and interleukin testing. Then, six naive Chinese macaques were used to determine the dynamics of cytokine secretion from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells in different phases of SIV infection. As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques. And the number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and IL-22 secretion by these cells were lower in the chronic phase than in the early acute phase of SIV infection. The number of mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred. Therefore, we conclude that a decline in IL-22 production from mucosal NKp44(+) NK cells induced by virus infection may be one of the causes of microbial translocation in HIV/SIV infection.

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