International journal of oncology

Transcriptome analysis reveals that Müllerian inhibiting substance regulates signaling pathways that contribute to endometrial carcinogenesis.

PMID 25760378


Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) has been shown to inhibit growth of a number of tumors in vitro and/or in vivo, but the downstream pathways which it regulates are not fully understood. In the present study we show that MIS type II receptor was highly expressed in AN3CA cells, a cell line derived from human endometrial cancer cell in which MIS-treatment caused a reduction of cell viability, and induced cellular apoptosis and genes involved cell cycle arrest. To understand the genome-wide effects of MIS on gene regulation, we performed serial gene expression analyses from 0 to 96 h at 24 h intervals after treating AN3CA cells with MIS. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular changes induced by MIS identified 2,688 differentially expressed genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated during the 96 h study period. When the 2,688 differentially expressed genes were mapped to known biological processes, Wnt-, cancer-, proteolysis-, cytoskeleton-, cell cycle-, apoptosis-, and MAPK-signaling pathways emerged as the functions most significantly changed by MIS in AN3CA cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis validated that protein expression of cell cycle inhibitory genes, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1), β-catenin-interacting protein (ICAT), Rb related protein 130 (p130), and inhibitor of disheveled Dvl and Axin complex (IDAX), were gradually increased over the time of the study, whereas downstream cell cycle activating genes, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phospho-c-Jun were downregulated in MIS-treated AN3CA cells. These transcriptome analyses support previous observations that MIS functions as a tumor suppressor, potentially by regulating signaling pathways that could contribute to endometrial carcinogenesis, and indicating that MIS should be considered as a potential treatment for endometrial cancer.