Ecotoxicology (London, England)

Enchytraeid Reproduction Test(PLUS): hatching, growth and full life cycle test--an optional multi-endpoint test with Enchytraeus crypticus.

PMID 25773650


Soil ecotoxicity standard tests for invertebrates are usually limited to the assessment of endpoints like survival and reproduction. Adverse effects may occur at other developmental stages, e.g. embryo development, hatching or growth. The species Enchytraeus crypticus is a model organism in the standard soil ecotoxicology test, where survival and reproduction are assessed. In the present study we optimized the test method to include additional endpoints. The proposed test started with synchronized age organisms', and included additionally hatching success, growth, maturation status and full life cycle. This allowed for the calculation of cocoon production and population growth rate. Results indicated that Cd is embryotoxic, main effect occurs on the embryo developmental stage and maturity. Further, the full life cycle test can discriminate between pre- and post-embryo formation. The increased sensitivity and full life cycle detail level makes it potentially useful for novel materials e.g. nanomaterials where the mode of action and hence effect target is unknown.