Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Protective properties of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. essential oil against oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury.

PMID 25778348


Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., known as "Spanish sage", has potential value in dementia for its sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase properties. This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro neuroprotective activity of S. lavandulifolia essential oils, obtained from plants at different phenological stages (vegetative and flowering phases) and plants grown at different densities, against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. The effect on cell viability and morphology, lipid peroxidation, GSH/GSSG ratio, intracellular ROS levels, antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, HO-1) and apoptotic enzymes was investigated. Comparing with H2O2-treated PC12 cells, pretreatments with essential oil samples attenuated morphological changes and loss of cell viability, decreased MDA levels and intracellular ROS production and increased GSH/GSSG ratio. Moreover, Spanish sage increased antioxidant status as evidenced in an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity and protein expression and inhibited caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, our results suggest that S. lavandulifolia essential oils are able to activate Nrf2 transcription factor. Collectively, the sample of essential oil obtained with the highest densities of planting and at flowering phase exerted the major neuroprotective activity. Our findings demonstrate that S. lavandulifolia essential oils may have therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury.