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Plant cell reports

Characterisation of the dark green islands of cucumber mosaic virus infected Nicotiana tabacum.


PMID 25782691

Abstract

There are significant differences between the DGIs and LGTs. Additionally, most of the characteristics indicate that the DGIs are more similar to recovered tissue and can resist viral attacks. Dark green islands (DGIs) surrounded by light green tissues (LGTs) are common leaf symptoms of plants that are systemically infected by various mosaic viruses. We performed cytological, physiological and molecular biological analyses of the DGIs and LGTs in cucumber mosaic virus-infected Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Our results indicated that the DGIs contained less virus than did the LGTs. Compared to the LGTs, the DGIs contained higher levels of the metabolites involved in plant defence. The contents of reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid were increased in the DGIs to reach levels that were even higher than those of control plants. Moreover, hormone measurements and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the endogenous salicylic acid, ethylene and defence genes mediated these elevations by playing positive roles in the regulation of the DGIs responses to viral infection. The accumulation of cytokinin was also much greater in the DGIs than in the LGTs. Finally, northern blotting analysis indicated that the accumulation of viral small interfering RNAs was decreased in the DGIs compared to the LGTs. Taken together, these results suggest that DGIs might represent leaf areas that have recovered from viral infection due to locally enhanced defence responses.

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