Effects of ageing and experimental diabetes on insulin-degrading enzyme expression in male rat tissues.

PMID 25792373


Due to an increasing life expectancy in developing countries, cases of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly are growing exponentially. Despite a causative link between diabetes and AD, general molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of these disorders are still far from being understood. One of the factors leading to cell death and cognitive impairment characteristic of AD is accumulation in the brain of toxic aggregates of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In the normally functioning brain Aβ catabolism is regulated by a cohort of proteolytic enzymes including insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and their deficit with ageing can result in Aβ accumulation and increased risk of AD. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of IDE expression in the brain structures involved in AD, as well as in peripheral organs (the liver and kidney) of rats, during natural ageing and after experimentally-induced diabetes. It was found that ageing is accompanied by a significant decrease of IDE mRNA and protein content in the liver (by 32 and 81%) and brain structures (in the cortex by 58 and 47% and in the striatum by 53 and 68%, respectively). In diabetic animals, IDE protein level was increased in the liver (by 36%) and in the striatum (by 42%) while in the brain cortex and hippocampus it was 20-30% lower than in control animals. No significant IDE protein changes were observed in the kidney of diabetic rats. These data testify that ageing and diabetes are accompanied by a deficit of IDE in the brain structures where accumulation of Aβ was reported in AD patients, which might be one of the factors predisposing to development of the sporadic form of AD in the elderly, and especially in diabetics.