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Allergologia et immunopathologia

Chronic granulomatous disease: Review of a cohort of Egyptian patients.


PMID 25796307

Abstract

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disease that results from a defect in the phagocytic cells of the immune system. It is caused by defects in one of the major subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. The clinical presentations of CGD patients are heterogeneous. This is the first report from Egypt discussing clinical and laboratory data of twenty-nine patients (from 26 families) with CGD from a single tertiary referral centre. There were twenty male and nine female patients. The consanguinity rate was 76% (19/25). Their age of diagnosis ranged from 2 to 168 months with a mean of 52.8 months ± 49.6 SD. The most common manifestations were abscesses in 79.3% (deep organ abscesses in 37.9% of patients), followed by pneumonia in 75.8% and gastrointestinal symptoms in 27.5%. Rare but fatal complications were also reported among patients as one patient developed haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Although X linked-CGD universally constitutes the most common pattern of inheritance; only 6 of our patients 6/25 (24%) belonged to this group with a Stimulation Index (SI) of 1-5, and confirmed by carrier pattern of their mothers. Mothers were not available for testing in four male children. Nineteen patients (76%) had autosomal recessive patterns; ten males and nine females patients based on having abnormal SI, positive history of consanguinity and their mothers showing normal SI. Increasing the awareness of physicians about symptoms of CGD may lead to earlier diagnosis of the disease, thus enhancing proper management and better quality of life.