Tissue engineering. Part A

Maintaining Moderate Platelet Aggregation and Improving Metabolism of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Increase the Patency Rate of Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels.

PMID 25808811


Small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) have been associated with low, long-term patency rates primarily because of acute thrombosis in early stages and an inability to achieve early endothelialization. Platelets and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in these processes. A nano delayed-release 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-bound TEBV was implanted in rat carotid arteries for 3 months. AICAR-bound TEBVs had a high patency rate compared with control TEBVs after 3 months. We found that AICAR maintained moderate platelet aggregation in vivo. In vitro data indicated that AICAR inhibits the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and thromboxane A2 in activating platelets to reduce platelet aggregation. Then, we confirmed that AICAR strengthens the EPC energy state, which results in earlier endothelialization. The homing, migration, and paracrine function of EPCs were enhanced by AICAR in vitro. Besides, AICAR can contribute to the migration of endothelial cells near the anastomosis. The cellularization of TEBVs at different time points was observed too. In conclusion, our study suggests that the application of nanodelivery material containing AICAR can effectively improve small-diameter TEBVs by maintaining moderate platelet aggregation and improving metabolism of EPCs.