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Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A

Nitric oxide-eluting scaffolds and their interaction with smooth muscle cells in vitro.


PMID 25809572

Abstract

Fabrication of scaffolds loaded with nitric oxide (NO) donors (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO, and isosorbide mononitrate, ISMN) with suitable cell compatibility and optimized properties for tissue-engineering applications is reported using "in situ" technique. Based on FDA-approved polymer, solvent and dosage forms, this gentle process allowed the incorporation of the GSNO labile drug into scaffolds made of either poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLGA/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) blend. During scaffolds manufacturing process including washing cycles, NO donors were leached from scaffolds. However, GSNO and ISMN concentrations in the last washing medium (10(-7) M and 10(-4) M, respectively) were in the range of cell suitability for tissue engineering. Further morphological analyses indicated that smoother surfaces with fewer but bigger pores (compatible with cell penetration and ingrowth) were obtained with PLGA in comparison with PLGA/PCL scaffolds. Among all tested matrices, only unloaded PLGA and GSNO-loaded PLGA/PCL exhibited intermediate cell anchorage, with mitochondrial activity close to the control and an increase in protein content, a prognostic for scaffold cell colonization, defining them as promising candidates. Deeper analyses of these two scaffolds looking at intracellular redox balance through reactive oxygen species production, glutathione, S-nitrosothiols, and nitrite ions content exhibited GSNO-loaded PLGA/PCL as the best of all tested 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering.